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鱈魚的習性及釣法 海邊釣魚技術 海水船釣 2

部分傳統且“戀舊”的老釣友仍在使用外,現代的釣友多採用專業的船釣竿施釣,對此,對“手提線”的釣具配備不再贅述,而著重對用竿施釣做以簡介。

  深海沉底式釣法的釣竿應以外走線並繼式或叫插節式的硬調船竿(boat)為主,一般都大於80號的錘負荷。此種釣竿的竿體上大多按竿長比例或弧度曲線點排列10~12個導線環。該類型釣竿的最大優點是出線順暢,收線阻力小,便於快速回線起魚。還有一種是內走線船釣竿(interline boat),一般不適應施釣鱈魚,除錘負荷較小(一般不超過100號),其收放線因從釣竿內管壁中通過,相對阻力較大。特別是中魚起魚回線過程。(當然,採用電動繞線輪配置另當別論。)同時,因施釣鱈魚多在初冬早春時期進行,其釣線帶水從釣竿內通過,必然在管壁中存有積水,因天氣寒冷而極易在釣竿內結冰,導致收竿時難以把竿節順利退回而損傷釣竿,所以應儘量不選擇此種類型的釣竿施釣。具體的釣具配備如下:

  選擇竿長2.4~2.7米的錘負荷在100~120號之間的專用船釣竿。因深海施釣多採用較大的釣船,中魚的個體又較大,竿長除便於操作又可利用竿體的弧度曲線起到較好的延伸卸力作用,以日本西瑪諾船釣竿“海明”系列的1205~240為例,應是不錯的選擇。與釣竿相配合的繞線輪,應以配備能儲線200米左右的橫向輪為主,以日本DAIWA產品S-350專業數字顯示船釣輪為例,也應是不錯的選擇。且速比在1:4.5左右,垂直拉力強勁,起魚過程十分輕鬆。當然,如使用電動船釣輪也不是不可,雖然輕鬆,但卻失去了與大魚過招的刺激過程。而對於船釣鱈魚的主線,一般多採用專用的船釣編織線,如日本“桑萊”、“西格”等都是不錯的釣線。其號數一般在6~8號即可,足可以對付10千克左右的大魚了。支線一般多採用5~6號左右的尼龍線。釣鉤以國際通用標準18~22號銳鉤為主,鉛墜的配備應有多種型號,如150克、200克、300克、400克不等,以適應施釣過程中應對不同的水深和海流流速。具體的錘負荷標準應按釣竿所示號數匹配,寧輕勿重。具體的要求與標準,筆者曾在以前的相關釣魚雜誌中做過介紹,在此不再贅述。

  釣點的選擇

  船釣鱈魚的釣點選擇正確與否直接關係到船釣的“內容”與“品質”。由於鱈魚多選擇在有泥沙質地周邊的較大障礙物如“沉船”、大的水下礁區等地獄棲息、覓食。採用沉底式船釣法釣取鱈魚的釣點應盡可能圍繞以下兩點類型來確認。

  一是泥沙質地周邊的水下暗礁區。這些釣點的溝 、縫隙、水下陡崖的夾角、坡底以及周邊有著海生植物生長的區域都是鱈魚集群棲息、覓食的活動場所。特別是那些較大的暗礁縫隙、海蝕洞穴、溝底及附近有著大片泥沙質地的周邊,常常是較大型鱈魚的潛伏和蟄居的場所和家園,如若將鉤下到此處,常常會有意外的驚喜。筆者有一親密釣友,第一次涉獵深海冬釣,第一竿下鉤之處便是這種釣點,第一竿海魚便是重達9千克的大鱈魚。從此該君迷上海釣釣法,淡水釣幾近荒廢。

  二是“沉船”釣點。此種釣點為深海施釣鱈魚的主要“戰場”。“沉船”釣點的形成及集魚原因等,筆者曾在以前的釣魚雜誌上做過詳細敘述,在此不再贅述。但作為沉底式釣法主釣的鱈魚,龐大的沉船常常又是鱈魚的主要棲息地,但“沉船”釣點的沉船經多年潮湧浪侵,加之被漁網纏裹或多是不規則的廢鋼爛鐵,極易掛鉤、失墜、跑魚,對次,施釣釣組應儘量少栓鉤為好。雖然此種釣點鱈魚挺“厚”,但常常中魚後掛底跑魚。到此釣點施釣,應儘量多備鉤、墜,以備不時之需。

  施釣釣法

  遠海船釣鱈魚,能否獲魚的前提是要能準確的判斷和把握鱈魚的“覓食高度”或泳層,並相對於鱈魚的泳層採取正確的釣組匹配,以達到中魚的目的。同時,對所施釣餌的“適口性”也要做到“有的放矢”。

  鱈魚屬肉食性底層魚類,主要攝食動物性餌料,以大個岩蟲、蛤肉、魚段、章魚須等都是不錯的餌料。大連沿海釣友除在釣取鱈魚時用其上述餌料外,還多採用大連當地生產的俗稱“海腸”的一種腔腸水螅類海生動物。此種餌料顏色暗紅,極具腥鮮味道,加之十分“戀鉤”,是釣取鱈魚不可多得的動物性餌料。具體的釣法是:選准釣點後,放釣組至海底,將主線繃緊,使其釣線與釣竿呈90度夾角,靜置船舷之上。間隔三五分鐘提動釣組晃動一次,以誘魚上鉤。鱈魚屬兇猛性魚類,吃餌兇狠,表現在釣竿上的魚汛多為突然一個大彎下拽,隨之伴有猛烈的抖動。此時應立即揚竿?鉤重重鉤住魚唇,同時隨時注意前文所述鱈魚常會出現的“跟線”毛病或叫“陰謀伎倆”。一旦出現這種情況,要在快速搖輪回線的同時,不停地揚竿?鉤,以防鱈魚在“跟線”途中乘釣線“軟塌”之時突然甩頭掙鉤逃脫。且這種“跟線”的鱈魚多為個體較大的,如若確認已鉤牢時,要慢慢收線,以免拉豁魚唇,同時,因遠海船釣的釣船大都船體較高,當收魚至船舷下時,應備好大口抄網或刨鉤,以順利取魚。

  綜上所述,以上僅是筆者就大連黃海海域對施釣鱈魚的一點心得體會,難免偏頗,僅供各位釣友參考。

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